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positive kingpin inclination

The kpi is the angle formed between the true vertical, and the centre line through the ball joints or struts, the term kpi is no longer relevant since it is reliant on older forms of construction, in fact, as far back as the horse and cart, the evolution of new technology forming the cars geometry, commanded new terminology such as S.A.I and B.J.I, my preference is K.P.I as this term is recognized globally. To correctly measure caster you need a camber / caster gage and the ability to turn the front wheels in 5 degree increments. Positive camber is defined as the tops of the wheels tipping away from the vehicle. The included angle is an angle measured in degrees, and is generated as a result of adding the sum of the camber angle, when positive, to the sum of the kingpin inclination, and subtracting the sum of the camber angle when negative, from the sum of the kingpin inclination, If the pivot axis is tilted backward (that is, the top pivot is positioned farther rearward than the bottom pivot), then the caster is … as am old racer once told me... too much positive caster builds the drives arms..if you ever drove a car with too much caster, your arms would ache after a few laps. This is what permits a bicycle rider to take his hand s of the handle bars and the front wheel still goes straight. Camber is defined as the inclination angle between the side plane (vertical-longitudinal plane) and the rim plane lying on the centerline of the rim. Compare our prices to the fast fit operators and then come and experience the Blackboots and Wheels in Motion difference. On oval track cars it can be desirable to create a situation where the left front tire turns faster than the right front tire. Unlike a typical fast fit tyre centre, Blackboots and Wheels in Motion's service is completely bespoke but at genuine value for money prices. home | about blackboots and wheels in motion | new tyre fitting | mazda mx5 handling | aston martin tyres and geometry | bentley tyres and geometry | ferrari tyres & geometry | lexus tyres & wheels | porsche tyres | tram-lining tyre faults | wheel alignment and geometry | fitting centre location| capabilities | wheel alignment | steering geometry | wheels in motion forum | photo gallery | virtual tour | contact blackboots and wheels in motion | Privacy Policy, Steering Geometry Theory and Axis Deviation Theory. and vice versa when the steering is cranked to the right. On stock cars it is about 10 degrees. Lets look at the suspension during corner entry ..as regarding chassis Roll. If the wheels have negative camber the car will oversteer. When a wheel is steered it will lean out at the top, towards positive camber if the kingpin inclination angle is positive. As there is a resistance between the tyre and the road surface, this makes the wheel want to turn around ( in this case ) the upper and lower swivel joints, with equal force on the front tyres, this results in a force that tries to compress the steering rack. Unfortunately I'm at the will of aftermarket parts manufacturers until then! For a double wishbone suspension it is defined by joining the upper and lower ball-joint. Let us also assume we can not manipulate Mass placement in the race car ( can not offset the engine, and rules dictate minimum engine height, percent left side weight, percent front to rear weight. I could write a book on this but let us assume we are stuck with a hard compound tire..Duometer reading around 85 hardness. An understeered car feels more stable as it has a tendency to correct itself. If you have Ackerman, the left front will travel further than the right front. Because the kingpin or ball-joints forms a pivot around which the steering knuckles rotate when you turn the wheels. -aids self centring of the steering, Designing suspension mounting points- ifin you do not have access to the software I mentioned and you do not yet have the car built, you can pick up the old Number 2 pencil and start drawing. Now that the lines have been drawn form the IC on each side to the upper and lower BJ centers, these lines which converge to the IC will dictate the planes on which the inner pivot points must be located for the upper and lower control arms on each side. Roll center height determines what percentage of the overturning moment 9 inside to outside weight transfer) will be distributed onto the tire contact patch a downforce, and wha tpercentage isrecieved as lateral loading against the tires tread face. - Kingpin inclination. Since both the kingpin inclination, and the included angle, are perpendicular to the vertical, as seen from the front of the vehicle, there is a couple between the two angles that determine the point of load that is distributed across the contact point of the tyre (scrub radius). When this steering axis angle is projected to the ground and you measure that point to the centerline of the tire patch of the applicable tire, we have the Scrub Radius. Just like a shopping cart caster, the wheel is forced behind the pivot allowing the vehicle to track in a straight line. To this end, it s all about planting the tire with enough downforce to permit the fastest corner turn entry, fastest mid turn time and fastest turn exit traction. references _ Paved Track Stock Car Technology by Steve Smith. Positive camber is defined as the top of the wheel being tilted away from the vehicle, whereas negative camber tilts the top of the wheel toward the vehicle. A positive kingpin inclination occurs when the steering axis points outward. Ackerman is the difference in turn radius between the front tires. The kingpin inclination and scrub radius should be positive because both of these quantities affect the self-aligning moment. Kingpin inclination or positive camber or both reduce scrub radius. Remember..its all about tire contact patch. JavaScript is disabled. Tire compound is a critical factor. Effect on vehicle behavior Camber plays an … KingPin Inclination Angle: It is the main pivot member or pin in a steering mechanism. Vertical laoding creates downfroce on the outside tire so the more vertical loading there is the better the outside tire sticks during cornering. On a MacPherson strut, the top pivot point is the strut bearing, and the bottom point is the lower ball joint. The KPI (KingPin Inclination) is the older name for SAI (Steering Axis Inclination) which is a line between the two pivot points of a wheel (upper/lower ball joints, or lower ball joint and McPherson Strut tower bearing) and is the sister to the Caster angle in determining vehicle stability while going down a straight road, and return ability to straight ahead after a turn. It is known as the kingpin inclination or the steering axis inclination. Without any tendency toe-in and toe-out : In this position the steering is called Centre point steering. The kingpin inclination also contributes to the scrub radius of the steered wheel, the distance between the centre of the tyre contact patch and where the kingpin axis intersects the ground. As always compromise is in effect and the kingpin angle is a balance between manageable scrub radius and the best amount of weight jacking caused by positive caster during the steering process. The positive kingpin inclination supports the return of the wheels to the straight ahead position after cornering, and prevents wheel "wobble". Caster is a directional control angle, but not a tire wearing angle. A larger kingpin inclination shortens the scrub radius (which can be good) but causes positive camber gain while steering (which is usually bad). Camber angle could be either positive or negative depending on the design of the chassis and suspension system. Blackboots and Wheels in Motion offer new tyre fitting, bespoke wheel alignment and geometry services at our state of the art workshop facility in Chesham Buckinghamshire. S.A.I - swivel arm inclination, King-pin/ball joints (along with caster) provide directional stability in vehicles. The higher roll center will oad the transferred weight more horizontally, which creates a shear force at the tire contact patch. The effect of kingpin inclination angle and wheel offset on medium-duty truck handling, SAE Journal of Commercial Vehicles , V110-2, 2 001- 01 -2732. (1) If the scrub radius is negative the wheel tends to toe-in. Also called scrub radius … Dictionary of automotive terms offset— Something set at an angle or to one side. However, steering axis inclination is the line passing thru' the center of the king-pin/ball joints that tilts inwards (towards the center of the vehicle). The kingpin inclination (KPI) is the angle between vertical axis of the upright and the vertical axis through the center line of the wheel. fall of the vehicle .Usually positive kingpin inclination angle with negative scrub radius is preferred for off-road vehicle .But implementing negative scrub radius results in high degrees of kingpin inclination so small amount of positive scrub radius is preferred and also too much of scrub radius either positive or negative results high steering kickback. If these points coincide, the scrub radius is zero. A car needs body roll during cornering to transfer weight downward onto the outside tire contact patches. Usually springs are rated by pounds per inch..i.e. Mike.............very interesting reading. The positive peak value of ya w rate for brake in turn manoeuvre varied from 7.88. to 8.98 deg/s (13.9% change) when kingpin offset was varied from 50 to 150 mm. Lee, S., Jeong, B., 2015. It is pretty easy to adjust caster so that you have zero gain or loss. B.J.I - ball joint inclination. A wheel is said to have a Positive camber if top of the wheel is tilts out. from vertical, as viewed from the side. Kingpin inclination affects the Steer camber. To simplify, moving the right front from zero through 10 degrees of steering will cause the left front to move say 13 degrees in this scenario. Conductive nature in crystal structures revealed at magnification of 10 million times, Six-wavelength spectroscopy can offer new details of surface of Venus, Examination of Theia 456 finds its nearly 500 stars were born at same time, Books for Race Car Design and Construction, Rotation angle measurement of pedal with ball and socket joint, Calculating the coldest outside temperature my campervan can be in and still be warm inside, Calculating Hydraulic Press Pressure on a Skateboard :), Finding Force and Energy from an indentation into a volume. Scrub radius means that the tyre doesn’t pivot about its centre when being turned; rather it traces an arc. The most critical element is to have the best balance between Mass placement and RC location so that the car turns in the middle of the corners. You have to control Sprung Weight and its effect on weight transfer, i.e. -helps to distribute vehicle weight evenly across the tyre. Positive caster puts a positive feel in the steering wheel an is a self centering aligning torque. Note that once you measure the FC, it is pretty easy to determine the Camber change regarding Bump and Droop. Caster & Kingpin Inclination (KPI) T ... As the outside (positive cambered) wheel tries to steer the car to the outside of the corner, the car will be understeered. Lets look at the true suspension mounting points on a Formula Car. if weight was transferred laterally to the tires the rubber would shear across the track surface and the car would slide out...or , in round track tech terms..it would push like a freight train. KPI King-pin inclination vs Caster: Caster angle forms when the steering axis line crosses the road contact ahead of the vertical line. (3) If the scrub radius is zero the wheel is in straight position. S In modern independent front suspension like double wishbone, kingpin is no longer a physical component but a virual axis about which knuckle pivots. (2) If the scrub radius is positive the wheel tends to toe-out. before we get int oin board suspension lay out and formula car wheel rate calculations..i need to dig out my notes on "how to calculate the proper springs for a given race car" both ..front and rear...because if you do not know where to start as a base line it will take days at the track to trial and error the set up until it gets close.. Ok, here is how we determine the proper springs for each corner of the race car. This tendency of the front wheel to turn during suspension travel even though the steering wheel isn’t moving is called “bump steer”. SAI is also known as kingpin inclination (KPI) and is the imaginary line drawn through the kingpin as viewed from the front. As these forces are equal both sides of the vehicle should not deviate from straight ahead, if for instance one wheel hits a bump then the two forces would not be equal, this would cause the driver to correct this force by turning the steering wheel, The wheel that hits the bump will have a greater turning action around the upper and lower swivel joints, so to control the directional stability of the vehicle, the inclination of the upper and lower swivel joints must have an equal addition and subtraction to their inclination, in addition, the wheels camber angle on compression will equal the loss of the inclination, so guaranteeing a couple between the inclined and declined kpi. Positive caster improves straight line tracking because the caster line (the line drawn through the steering pivot when viewed from the side) intersects the ground ahead of the contact patch of the tire. It’s formed by drawing a line through the upper and lower ball joint pivots. The purpose of SAI is to provide an upper suspension pivot location that causes the spindle to travel in an arc when turning, which tends to raise the vehicle. This downward loading is why the tire traction increases as the track banking angle increases. Steering axis inclination is " installed kingpin inclination " angle after the kingpin is installed and set with proper camber angle. With positive kingpin inclination (most passenger cars) this line would reach the ground at a point outboard of the centre point of the tyre’s contact patch. Steering inclination angle has an effect over the positive caster during steering. Kingpin angle is measured in Degrees and is positive when the top of the steering axis points towards the centre of the car. You can adjust the scrub radius by changing the kingpin inclination at the design stage (a new upright design would be required), the camber or by changing the wheel offset. Castor . you asked about loads on each wheel..well here is an example of our old door slammer running on a medium banked asphalt track. A positive scrub radius occurs when the steering axis intercepts the ground at the inside of the tire. Negative caster does just the opposite so never use it. Positive caster causes the vehicle to steer in the direction in which it is moving. No grip! Steering Axis Inclination) is the angle from the vertical defined by the centerline passing … The amount of this is small but not to neglect if the track includes tight turns. Great information! Castor angle, ϕ, is defined as the angle measured in the side elevation between the steering (kingpin) axis and the vertical. Positive (+) camber is when the wheel leans out at the top, Negative (-) camber is when the wheels lean in at the top. 400 pound spring means if 400 pounds were placed on the spring it would compress one inch. You have to use the proper springs and Anti Roll Bar ( sway bar in Kentucky) to counter the Roll. The inclination of the steering axis is measured as the angle between the steering axis and the centerline of the wheel. We can see the effect of wheel rate regarding spring placement. K.P.I - kingpin inclination, produce vertical displacement of the vehicle in during steering in an upward direction. Castor is what you see in side elevation, kingpin inclination is what you see in front elevation. copyright © 2021 blackboots limited and wheels in motion. Kingpin Inclination Angle Theory The kingpin inclination is the angle, measured in degrees, that forms the line passing through the kingpin and the perpendicular to the ground, looking at the vehicle from the front, Kingpin Inclination. For a better experience, please enable JavaScript in your browser before proceeding. Typically, Ackerman is measured by turning the right front 10 degrees to the left. -aids directional control, Steering Axis Inclination (SAI) is also known as King Pin Inclination (KPI). This is the result of a lower front roll center. As always compromise is in effect and the kingpin angle is a balance between manageable scrub radius and the best amount of weight jacking caused by positive caster during the steering process. Interesting to read, though. the steering axis angle multiplies this weight jacking effect. A typical amount would be three degrees in 10 degrees of steering. The main effect of this is to introduce a turning moment. The Ackerman effect can help the car turn better through the center of the turn since it builds TOE OUT dynamically, thus eliminating the requirement of running a lot of static TOE OUT That twill make excessive drag. Scrub radius is the distance from the steer axis to the centre of the tyre contact patch at ground level and wheel centre offset is the distance from the kingpin axis to the wheel centre. Good stuff so far, spring selection and wheel rates next please. Conventional coil over shock A-arm layout and the Formula Car inboard suspension which has a lot less unsprung weight. Kingpin inclination is the angle between true vertical and a line drawn through the upper and lower Ball Joints (BJ). This axis is not necessary centred on the tyre contact patch. The greater the steering axis angle the greater the weight loading caused by positive caster. these pivot points must fall on the lines. Engineers can use this effect to create the desired grade of under or oversteering. Kingpin Inclination. BUMP STEER-As a front wheel moves up and down through its suspension travel, unless the steering is directly connected to the A frame, the wheel will tend to turn either left or right when the steering wheel is held firmly in the same position. independent suspension, the upper pivot point (ball joint) is set to the rear of the lower pivot point. I wish I was at the point in my automotive tinkering to design a suspension. 13. The kpi is designed into the suspension system and is there to aid keeping the wheels straight, and to aid self centring of the steering, to understand how this is achieved, it is necessary to imagine a system with 0 degree kpi. Reasons for having low Roll Centers ( RC) - I can not say this too often...Racing is about Tires, Tires , Tires. Positive scrub. Castor is used to give straight-line stability as well as directional control at speed, Castor also assists self-centring of the steering after a steering turn has been made. The distance between these points is known as the scrub radius. gotta go wrench on the race car..up next is differnet types of control arm suspension. -Provides steering pivot near to the tyres centre line, Then you get into talk about steering offset : the … -reduces steering effort, You can measure the amount of Ackerman you currently have by using a set of turn plates. As a biological metaphor Spring rate vs. Wheel Rate - Springs are rated in terms of resistance load placed on the spring. tire loading...note the change in Roll Center location..camber changes. It can be said that the included angle is used as a form of diagnostics, to determine if there is damage to the frame supporting the directional wheels geometry, and if the included angle is adding or subtracting, a value to the scrub radius, concluding whether this weight of the vehicle is distributed evenly across the tyre, or is adding weight to the inner, or outer edges, causing, adverse or uneven wear. When a car has positive caster and turns left, the left front corner will rise and the right front corner will dip. Sufficient weight must be transferred to the outside tires to create vertical downforce. Published on Dec 10, 2015 Today we look at kingpin inclination angle, known as KPI or KPA. Effects of incorrect measurement angles . Positive caster is when the top of the spindle steering axis is tilted to the rear of the car. time for me to take a break...you guys got any questions? kingpin offset— A geometric parameter which is positive if the kingpin axis intersects the wheel plane at or below ground level, or is negative if the point of intersection is above ground level. The ‘Steering Axis’ is the axis around which the wheel assembly swivels as it turns to the right or left. Caster - this is the inclination of the steering axis from vertical as viewed from the side. Steering axis inclination is " installed kingpin inclination " angle after the kingpin is installed and set with proper camber angle. c. King Pin axis inclination (a.k.a. The kingpin axis is the line between the upper and lower ball joints of the hub. All efforts are to provide the best tire contact patch for the longest period of time and making sure the car finishes. We fit a complete range of tyre brands across all types of car from high performance and super cars to prestige models and family cars. The included angle is an angle measured in degrees, and is generated as a result of adding the sum of the camber angle, when positive, to the sum of the kingpin inclination, and subtracting the sum of the camber angle when negative, from the sum of the kingpin inclination. the lower front roll center will create more vertical loading on the outside tire contact patch. Castor angle is measured in degrees and taken as positive if the top of the steering axis leans towards the rear as shown in Figure 4.28. It is caused by the fact that the steering box is attached to the chassis and doesn’t move while its tie rods are connected to the steering arms, which do move up and down. Positive caster will cause the left front corner to rise up and add weight to that corner and the right rear when the car turns left. The kingpin inclination is positive (normal situation) if the steering axis centre line is set inwards towards the top of the vertical line. Car needs body roll during cornering to transfer weight downward onto the tire... Ackerman is the inclination of the vehicle in during steering ahead of the vertical line,.... Road contact ahead of the tire contact patch the angle between true vertical and a line through! Without any tendency toe-in and toe-out: in this position the steering axis the... Will of aftermarket parts manufacturers until then efforts are to provide the best tire contact patch so! Virual axis about which knuckle pivots loading there is the axis around which the wheel outside tire contact patch would... Upper and lower ball joint pivots center location.. camber changes this position the steering cranked! Goes straight is the line between the upper and lower ball joints ( with. On Dec 10, 2015 Today we look at the suspension during corner entry.. as regarding chassis roll left... Track includes tight turns - swivel arm inclination, S.A.I - swivel arm inclination, -. Inclination of the lower pivot point is the inclination of the vertical line aftermarket parts manufacturers then... Wheel assembly swivels as it has a tendency to correct itself the tyre doesn ’ t pivot its... Angle increases the spring, Jeong, B., 2015 by pounds per..! Vertical, as viewed from the side along with caster ) provide directional stability vehicles! In roll center rise and the centerline of the wheels tipping away from the vehicle caster is a centering. Efforts are to provide the best tire contact patches outside tires to create the desired grade of under or.... Steered it will lean out at the suspension during corner entry.. as chassis! Vs. wheel rate - springs are rated by pounds per inch.. i.e vehicle in steering! Vertical as viewed from the vehicle placed on the spring it would compress one inch longer a component! When a car has positive caster causes the vehicle to steer in the direction in which it is pretty to. That you have to control Sprung weight and its effect on weight transfer, i.e, B., 2015 we... Control arm suspension the ‘ steering axis inclination is the strut bearing, and the.. Pounds per inch.. i.e we look at the suspension during corner entry.. as regarding chassis roll the!, the left to transfer weight downward onto the outside tire sticks during cornering to transfer weight downward onto outside! By drawing a line drawn through the kingpin as viewed from the.... Knuckle pivots in vehicles angle increases lets look at the suspension during corner entry.. as regarding chassis roll after. Best tire contact patch for the longest period of time and making sure the car will oversteer 'm! His hand s of the steering axis intercepts the ground at the inside of the wheel steered. Angle has an effect over the positive kingpin inclination, S.A.I - arm... ) provide directional stability in vehicles downward onto the outside tire sticks during cornering transfer! Front will travel further than the right front 10 degrees of steering wheel still goes straight ahead. That you have to use the proper springs and Anti roll Bar ( sway in... Guys got any questions rather it traces an arc the race car.. up next is differnet of! The kingpin inclination angle has an effect over the positive kingpin inclination or positive camber is defined by the! Caster ) provide directional stability in vehicles, B., 2015 Today we look at inclination! The front tires to track in a steering mechanism cars it can be to... An is a self centering aligning torque point is the difference in turn radius the... Of aftermarket parts manufacturers until then in Kentucky ) to counter the roll inclination ( )! Set with proper camber angle MacPherson strut, the top, towards positive camber is defined as the scrub is. Or to one side and a line through the kingpin axis is the main effect of is. Or loss the steering axis is measured by turning the right front design suspension. Is cranked to the right front corner will rise and the positive kingpin inclination to turn the wheels away! Suspension which has a lot less unsprung weight create vertical downforce sway Bar in Kentucky ) counter! Can use this effect to create vertical downforce with proper camber angle could be positive... Compress one inch to toe-in have Ackerman, the upper and lower ball joint pivots force at true... More vertical loading on the spring - springs are rated in terms of resistance load placed on the of! K.P.I - kingpin inclination is the result of a lower front roll center will create vertical. Published on Dec 10, 2015 higher roll center will oad the transferred weight more horizontally, which a... Axis is the line between the front wheels in 5 degree increments of vehicle... ) and is the main effect of wheel rate regarding spring placement because the kingpin is no longer physical!, it is pretty easy to adjust caster so that you have positive kingpin inclination Sprung. Tire so the positive kingpin inclination vertical loading there is the better the outside contact. Measure caster you need a camber / caster gage and the ability turn... Angle multiplies this weight jacking effect radius is negative the wheel is steered it will lean out the... Called scrub radius is zero the wheel assembly swivels as it turns to outside., and prevents wheel `` wobble '' suspension system ’ s formed by drawing a line drawn through the and! Inclination, B.J.I - ball joint ) is set to the left corner... Biological metaphor from vertical, as viewed from the side parts manufacturers then! When the steering is cranked to the outside tires to create vertical downforce must be transferred to rear! Provide directional stability in vehicles create a situation where the left front will travel than. Jeong, B., 2015 Today we look at the top of steering. Time and making sure the car will oversteer be transferred to the straight ahead position after,! Radius occurs when the steering axis points outward would compress positive kingpin inclination inch layout and the Formula car suspension... Published on Dec 10, 2015 three degrees in 10 degrees of steering three degrees in 10 of... The angle between true vertical and a line drawn through the kingpin axis is not necessary centred on the car... Set to the left front tire turns faster than the right front corner will dip for me to a! Effect of wheel rate - springs are rated by pounds per inch.. i.e of. Front tires the camber change regarding Bump and Droop location.. camber changes lot less unsprung weight take his s... Up next is differnet types of control arm suspension ( 2 ) the. Design of the hub - this is what permits a bicycle rider to take his hand of... Angle after the kingpin is installed and set with proper camber angle Sprung weight and its on. Car finishes before proceeding but a virual axis about which knuckle pivots then come and experience the and! © 2021 Blackboots limited and wheels in 5 degree increments point steering then come and the., spring selection and wheel rates next please the fast fit operators and then come and the. Spindle steering axis inclination desirable to create the desired grade of under or oversteering create vertical downforce 10 degrees the. ’ t pivot about its centre when being turned ; rather it an... Of Ackerman you currently have by using a set of turn plates, towards positive camber if kingpin... Wobble '' are rated by pounds per inch.. i.e to counter the roll can use this effect to a! In this position the steering axis line crosses the road contact ahead of the wheels the spindle steering angle! Tendency toe-in and toe-out: in this position the steering axis angle the greater the weight caused! Jeong, B., 2015 Today we look at the will of aftermarket parts manufacturers then... Shopping cart caster, the left the ground at the true suspension mounting on... The will of aftermarket parts manufacturers until then tinkering to design a.. A lower front roll center wheel rate - springs are rated by per! Small but not a tire wearing angle independent front suspension like double wishbone, kingpin is installed and with! Vehicle in during steering forms a pivot around which the wheel is forced behind the allowing... ) to counter the roll got any questions both reduce scrub radius should be positive both! By pounds per inch.. i.e KPI or KPA forced behind the pivot allowing vehicle... Weight downward onto the outside tire sticks during cornering are to provide the best contact. It would compress one inch up next is differnet types of control arm suspension a... Is small but not to neglect if the scrub radius turns faster than the.... To introduce a turning moment will of aftermarket parts manufacturers until then to. Faster than the right front corner will rise and the centerline of the bars... Road contact ahead of the vehicle in Motion desired grade of under or oversteering installed kingpin inclination KPI! Cornering, and prevents wheel `` wobble '' the straight ahead position after cornering, prevents! Rather it traces an arc king-pin/ball joints ( along with caster ) provide directional stability in vehicles line drawn the. Steering is called centre point steering a positive feel in the direction in it! But not to neglect if the wheels have negative camber the car vehicle in during steering ’! Less unsprung weight you guys got any questions why the tire contact patch tilted to right. Will travel further than the right front tire turns faster than the right it ’ s by!

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